Gene Food: Is Biotechnology Really Friendly?
Biotechnology, a '90s buzzword, popularly conjures up
somewhat ominous images of gene-tinkering. Yet manipulating the genetic
makeup of plants and animals to improve crop yields is far from new.
Cross-breeding for desired traits such as tallness, greater milk yield
or sweeter fruits, has been practiced ever since humans took up
farming. However classical breeding methods have drawbacks, especially
the length of time required to achieve the desired quality. Traditional
cross-breeding means crossing all the genes in two plants or animals
for maybe 10, 12 or more years, to create one with the desired
trait(s). Also, traditional cross-breeding can only be used within
individuals of the same (or related) species - further limiting its
ability to enhance or alter food quality.
What are the benefits of biotechnology? And are they, really?
Biotechnology can dramatically reduce the time and effort required to
improve crops and livestock. The technique allows scientists to modify
plants and animals in a more controlled way, choosing selected genes
for cross-breeding instead of crossing hundreds of genes through many
generations to obtain the desired characteristic. The new technique
allows the transfer of one or a few selected gene at a time, for just
one or a few desirable traits. And the technique even permits genes
with certain traits to be transferred from one species to another,
impossible by traditional breeding methods.
The basis of modern food biotechnology depends on the molecule
deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA, the genetic material of all living cells.
It is contained in the chromosomes (threadlike structures) inside the
cell nucleus. Unravelling the molecular structure of DNA opened the
door to rapid advances in food biotechnology. instead of mixing all the
hundreds of genes within a plant or animal in back-crossing, scientists
can now "select out" a particular gene (length of DNA) responsible for
a particular trait. In essence, genetic manipulation means taking one
or more selected genes (portions of DN) and incorporating them into the
genetic material of another plant or animal, bypassing the need for
tedious years of breeding. The gene transfer is done by a complex "cut
and paste" procedure in which transcription or cutting enzymes "cut"
(remove) a specific gene from one organism's DNA and "paste" or splice
it into the DNA of another organism.
The burgeoning benefits of food biotechnology include better tasting
fruits and vegetables, disease-resistant crops requiring less
pesticides and plants with improved nutrient contents, to name a few.
See the conclusions at the end before you become overjoyed with these
For instance, slower-ripening tomatoes that can stay on the vine longer
without rotting, will allow better-tasting ripe produce to be shipped
out instead of being artificially ripened. Or, for example, crookneck
squash plants can be made resistant to the viruses carried by insects
(aphids) that often destroy them, reducing crop spoilage and decreasing
the need for pesticides. Growers are also producing virus-resistant
varieties of potatoes, cucumbers and melons. See the conclusions before
you get too enamored of the possible benefits seen here.
Other improvements achieved through food biotechnology are sweet
potatoes resistant to the "feathery virus," higher-protein rice
(obtained via genes transferred from pea plants) and cooking oils with
lower saturated fat contents. Corn, canola or soybean plants can now be
modified to reduce their saturated fat content - thereby perhaps
helping consumers to lower their blood-cholesterol levels. Gene
transfer is also used in animals to make them resistant to specific
diseases and to meet consumer demands for leaner meat.
Stringent regulations ensure the safety of biotech techniques – True or False?
Health Canada, Environment Canada, Human Resources Canada, Fisherlee
and Oceans along with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada jointly regulate
the products of biotechnology. They assess health risks before products
made by biotechno10gy are allowed on the market. These agencies ensure
that human and animal health and the environment are not harmed. In
Canada today, the only approved use of biotechnology for food
production is for chymosin produced through recombinant DNA techniques.
Chymosin, known as the "animal-friendly cheese enzyme" is far cheaper
and easier to produce by biotechnology than its predecessor rennet,
which had to be extracted from bacteria in the lining of calves'
stomachs (Almost half the cheese made in North America no longer
requires rennet – but there are complications beyond normal ken with
this process, so make sure you know the whole story).
Also under consideration by Canada's regulators is an application by
the Canadian dairy industry to use bovine somatotropin, or BST, to
increase milk production. BST, a protein hormone needed by cows to
produce milk, can now be made outside the cow's body through
recombinant DNA techniques, then put back into cows to enhance milk
production. This could be a very dangerous process.
In conclusion – beware.
Given that the world's present population of nearly 6 billion will
double to nearly 12 billion by the year 2030, one would think right
away that anything that can help food production keep pace should be
welcomed. Never-the-less, the advent of gene modification techniques
gave us several GMOs including most notoriously Soy.
The Soy GMO has, in the first 10 short years, contaminated virtually
the entire world’s crops of Soy, to the point where there is
practically no uncontaminated Soy stock left anywhere. The
possibilities of “Certified Organic Soy” are virtually nonexistent.
Similar problems are arising with other GMO grains around the world.
Two problems seem to arise from genetic modifications. While we have
increased production of grains, helping to meet food shortages with
increasing populations, digestive disorders abound with the new grains
and cross-polinization with unmodified stocks is slowly contaminating
the world’s crops of “natural” grain stocks.
Our governments seem to be hiding these known, published and publicized
results of GMO activities. One thing is certain right now: the
producers of Bio88+ (Plus) use only the very finest “certified” organic
components in the making of their highly nutritious food product. In
itself it provides virtually all of the added nutrition, in the form of
vitamins and minerals, that you need in your diet in order to maintain
Bio88+ (Plus) is produced in a government supervised laboratory using
an ancient Native North American fermentation process. Feel free to
contact the author by email for additional information.
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About the Author
Windblad has studied nutrition and exercise for more than 40 years, is
a published author and freelance writer. His latest business endeavor
is at: http://www.organicgreens.us